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Forest Research and Development Agency

The Center for Research and Development on Forest Engineering and Forest Products Processing
Pengembangan Hasil Penelitian

In 2011, Pustekolah already menginiasiasi preliminary development of research activities, namely the identification of potential use for the various uses of wood vinegar and laboratory testing of constituent chemical components of wood vinegar. This result is a material for product development activities more wood vinegar.

Currently, Pustekolah has produced many technological, information and formulas that potential to be developed. However, considering the resources and needs of the community, need to be prioritization of development activities to be carried out in 2011-2014.

In the 2011-2014 period will be 6 (six) integrated development activities as follows :

1. Wood Vinegar Product Development.

The potential of liquid smoke produced from charcoal-making process is quite large.
During this time the smoke released during the process of composing is left discharged into
air, causing air pollution.

Gani (2007) states that liquid smoke has long been known and used to preserve meat and to give some flavor to the food because it has several advantages such as:

a. The aroma is distinctive

b. Loss of smell is more easily detected

c. Can be applied to various kinds of food

d. Can be used by consumers padatingkat commercial

e. Can reduce environmental pollution. In addition, liquid smoke that has some functional properties as

Preservative because it contains phenolic compounds and acids that act as anti-bacterial, anti fungal and antioxidant. Acid contained in the function lowers the pH of the liquid smoke, which can inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Ahmad et al, (1980) states that the phenolic compounds in liquid smoke has been identified and most are already used in the pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics and food, because it possessed biological activity of liquid smoke is as an antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antimutagenesis antimetanogenesis.

In connection with the above, then the activity will focus on the development of wood vinegar to make use of acid contained in the liquid smoke as a coagulant for natural rubber latex as an alternative coagulant chemicals formic acid (formic acid) which has been used. This activity aims to get the formulation / concentration of liquid smoke as koagula to natural rubber latex (latex), and is expected to know the nature and characteristics of liquid smoke as a coagulant geta
natural rubber.

2. Cat Eye Damar purification

Resin is a resin produced by the genus Shorea, Hopea and Vatica, family Dipterocarpaceae. Known in the trade there are several types of resins are amber stone, gray amber, blue amber, amber resak, cat's eye resin, and others. Cat's eye resin is derived from the natural resin tapping the tree Shorea javanica and an export commodity that is traded in its natural form (chunks of resin) are generally still contains many impurities (Anonymous, 1997).

To improve the quality of damar resin mainly low quality resin purification is required. Resin purification efforts of dirt can be carried out using an organic solvent which dissolves the resin in toluene or benzene and then filtered, printed and evaporated the solvent. Given the number of utilization of resin as a material for foods and cosmetics, the purification resin with suitable organic solvents are less so without the necessary purification of the solvent by heating (Zulnely and Suwardi., 2006). Problems in purification of the heat system is the result of purification resin tends darker than the original. This may be because of a delay in the heated resin removed from the heater.

Cat's eye resin purifiers that have been obtained at this time using a simple electric heater is not heating the container around and not using the temperature control (thermostat) so that the temperature is not controlled and becomes darker amber color. This tool has been enhanced where purification using an electric heater is used around the containers and temperature control (thermostat) so that the temperature can be controlled. Before tested in a larger scale, this resin purifiers need to be refined in order to produce quality resin purification result is better quality than before purification.

Of this development activity is expected to obtain a cat's eye resin purifiers and purification methods to improve the quality of a cat's eye resin, which can be adopted by the community to increase farmers' income damar resin processing industry as well as cat's eye.

Activities will begin to be implemented with a focus on improving the activities of existing resin purifiers to get / find a resin purification tool that can improve the quality of the purified resin. Kegiatanselanjutnya focus on experimental activities purifiers amber cat's eye resin production centers.

3. Wood Dryer Demonstration Plot Development

Drying is one of the most important stages in the processing of wood. Approximately 80% of the energy expended in the processing of wood is at this stage. Drying of wood is needed to reduce the moisture content of wood and produce a final product that has good dimensional stability.

Wood that has a drastic shrinkage and development and large, less preferred to the use of any kind. Shifts or changes in the dimensions of the wood will cause distortion in the furniture / furniture, drawer pull hard, difficult to open the door, and also led to an open connection. With proper treatment drying, wood with moisture content of less than 10% will be able to overcome this problem.

Wood dryers are needed by the craftsmen of wood, especially the small artisans / micro. Production costs, especially the cost of drying is affected by the drying process is done, and is related to the type and size of the dryer. It should be made of wood dryers designed right from the beginning and is expected to provide good technology transfer for the craftsmen.

4. Development of Biodiesel

Current fossil energy sources diminishing availability due to increased utilization to satisfy human needs. A variety of alternative renewable energy was developed. Indonesia's forest resources has great potential as a renewable energy resource. One type is nyamplung or Callophyllum inophyllum L, a high potential as a biofuel feedstock, as it has high oil content, non-food, and spread all over Indonesia (the beach). Nyamplung easy to grow in the sandy beach, easily grown, high fruitfully (wood, sap, leaves, flowers, seeds) and can serve as windbreaks and conservation of high border.

Nyamplung processing into biodiesel gives high yield, biodiesel standard SNI 04-7182-2006 meet, have a high-power fuel, is compatible with diesel fuel, lubricating helpless better, virtually zero sulfur content, and improve the quality of emissions.

Pustekolah has resulted in an oil processing technology nyamplung nyamplung, even the process of esterification and transesterification has been awarded a patent. As a follow-up results of these studies, conducted in 2012-2014 will be an application development activities nyamplung use of biodiesel in transportation equipment and other machinery and engineering development of vegetable oil processing machine tools to manufacture mini-scale biodiesel, which is placed in the tub diesel-powered cars. The tool is expected to overcome the constraints on the availability of raw materials are small and scattered.

5. Lamina Wood Development for Specific Purposes.

During these types of wood commonly used for the ship industry folk are ironwood, lara, Laban, teak, merbau, bangkirai, limestone taken from natural forests. Depleting potential of the timber in natural forests. On the other side of the boat people traditionally are generally wasteful of raw materials because no design so much wood is cut and discarded. The technical requirements for the shipping timber, both for the hull, ivory, Senta, and stomach are strong and resistant to marine animals. The results Muslich and Sumarni (2006) showed 200 species of Indonesian timber that is resistant or durable I have a class of marine borers in only 2.5 percent and durable class II as much as 5 percent, while the remaining 92.5% belongs to the class III-lasting V. Deficit problems shipping timber can be addressed through the development of alternative raw materials, such as by utilizing wood from fast growing plantations. Inferior properties owned fast-growing timber can be enhanced through the preservation and gluing technologies, such as block making lamina (Glulam = Glued Laminated Timber ). Based on this research, the types of wood is relatively easy to grow faster than the wood preserved natural forests. Manufacture of beams or boards lamina (glulam) from small-diameter wood is the raw material diversification. Glulam properties of small diameter wood, among others, can be obtained with the dimensions of the wood products according to needs, physical-mechanical properties better than solid wood, easily shaped to fit the desired design, and efficient use of wood raw material.

Glulam (Glued Laminated Timber) is one of the engineered composite board that is a combination of sheets of board, some with adhesive bonded wood fiber direction parallel to one another. Laminasinya can consist of one or several types of wood, with a total of more than two layers. Trial manufacture of glulam timber of fast growing plants have been conducted since 2004 (Abdurachman et al., 2008). Mangium wood glulam reported by the number of layers 6-8 using urea formaldehyde adhesive produces a range of 0.520 to 0.889 gr/cm3 density and higher than is glulam sengon gr/cm3 only .293 to .331. Glulam MOE and MOR values ​​in succession mangium kg/cm2dan 76526.28 to 100,312.59 229.96 to 383.30 kg/cm2, also higher than glulam sengon that only 24 615 consecutive, 70-53423.25 kg / cm2 and 186.50 to 268.30 kg/cm2. The test results Sulistyawati et al. (2008) by the method of transformed cross section showing the vertical glulam generate maximum force MOR 13.5% and 27% higher than the horizontal glulam beams, which means the vertical glulam glulam is stronger than the horizontal. This is because the horizontal glulam beams are often preceded by the occurrence of slip at the junction between the layers followed by damage to the bottom fiber tensile region, while the vertical glulam damage only at the bottom fiber tensile region. Hadi (2004) have suggested caution in selecting the type of connection between the wooden boards on a single layer of wood besides the dryness level, cutting the material uniformity and eyes-free wood, and gluing and pressing techniques. An important component part of the ship such as hull, ivory, leather hull, engine cradle, and so forth can be made of boards or glulam lamina either similar or mixed, with respect to the stiffness of each layer glulamny. Pustekolah has had a wood preservation technology to improve the durability of wood, especially for wood destroying organisms in the sea and gluing technology for the manufacture of beam lamina to improve physical properties. The results of these studies will be tested through prototyping board component of the plant timber that meets the technical standard component of timber ships.

6. Productivity, Effectiveness and Wood Vinegar Biochar As BIOFERTILIZER and Biopesticide

Charcoal has many benefits, such as biochar to soil to improve soil chemical properties. Thus, it can increase yields, to reduce loss of nitrogen contained in the soil, reducing emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O in the air, as carbon sequestration and climate change. Implementation of biochar application is an alternative to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Development activities to be carried out from 2012-2013, is a trial production and the effectiveness of wood vinegar and biochar as biorepellent and bioconditioner, and test development on agricultural land and forestry.

Charcoal is a soil builder, because the charcoal has pores that can absorb and store water and nutrients, and water and nutrients will be released again as needed. Charcoal can increase the pH, CEC and can improve the properties of the physical, chemical and biological soil so that when the charcoal plant will increase the growth, including height, diameter and production.

Charcoal and wood vinegar is a source of carbon that can serve as a carbon store, so as to restore the carbon compounds in the soil that will impact positively to increase the biomass plant. The addition of charcoal (biochar) into the ground in addition to store carbon, can also reduce emissions released by the soil such as CH4 and N2O gas that can affect the greenhouse effect, by binding the gas into the porous charcoal.